Choosing the Right Spray Nozzle

A nozzle is a hydraulic element placed at the end of a pipe or hose through which a liquid or gaseous fluid flows. The nozzle’s function is to spray the fluid. Several different nozzles exist for industrial applications such as injection, blowing, and atomization.

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  • What are the different functions of a nozzle?

    EXAIR spray nozzle

    EXAIR spray nozzle

    Spray nozzles are used to spray liquids onto a surface. For example, they are most commonly used for spraying paint. However, spray nozzles can also be used to spray ionizing gas onto a surface.

    Injection nozzles

    These are used to evenly distribute fluids into enclosed containers. They are often used in the automotive industry, particularly for injecting fuel into engine cylinders. The fuel is sprayed through the nozzle into the air in the carburetor, allowing it to ignite more easily and thus boosting engine efficiency.

    Blowoff nozzles

    These are quite basic. They are placed at the end of blow guns to clean surfaces with compressed air.

    Misting nozzles

    These nozzles provide a fine atomized sprayed mist. They work like patio misters and disperse microdroplets that are diffused throughout a space. The size of the droplets can be adjusted depending on what is needed.

    Atomizing nozzles

    These nozzles are similar to misting nozzles, but the droplets are smaller. They are used for coating and cooling. 

    Cleaning nozzles

    These nozzles spray a liquid under pressure to clean a surface.

    Spray Nozzle Functions

  • What are the different nozzle jet shapes?

    Nozzles are available with different jet shapes.

    DELAVAN hollow-cone spray nozzle

    DELAVAN hollow-cone spray nozzle

    Full-cone nozzles and hollow-cone nozzles

    These provide a high-pressure jet made up of small droplets. The spray angle varies from 30° to 170° depending on the nozzle.

    Full-cone vs hollow-cone:

    • Full-cone nozzles spray larger droplets in a cone-shaped jet that covers the entire area of a circular shape.
    • Hollow-cone nozzles spray smaller droplets around the jet’s edge to form a ring shape.

    Full-cone nozzles

    There are two possible types of flows for full-cone nozzles:

    • Axial-flow full-cone nozzles evenly distribute the liquid over a circular surface.
    • Tangential-flow full-cone nozzles rotate the liquid, ensuring even, regular distribution with stable pressure.

    Disadvantages: Full-cone nozzles are not compatible with spray booms.

    Hollow-cone nozzles

    There are two possible types of flows for hollow-cone nozzles:

    • Axial-flow hollow-cone nozzles are used for spraying extremely fine droplets.
    • Eccentric-flow hollow-cone nozzles produce fine droplets and have very little risk of clogging.

    Flat spray nozzles

    Flat spray nozzles, or flat fan spray nozzles, are used in pneumatic atomizing nozzles.

    Flat fan atomizing nozzles produce very small droplets with spray angles of up to 80°. They are best suited for misting.

    Flat sprayers have a nozzle that divides the liquid into small droplets and distributes them in a flat, fan-shaped jet. The angle of the flat jets varies between 15° and 145° depending on the nozzle.

    Solid-stream spray nozzles

    This type of nozzle does not produce any droplets. The solid-stream jet is formed by forcing liquid through an orifice.

    Straight jet nozzles

    These nozzles project the jet in a straight line, which means that the spray angle is 0º. This type of nozzle is therefore best suited for applications that require a strong impact on a very precise point (power washing, paper cutting).

    Multi-jet nozzles

    These have several individual fine-spray nozzles that spray liquid over a very large area. They are particularly suitable for working with gaseous fluids, controlling dust, or cooling steam, as they produce a fine, full cone-shaped atomization that is very dense over large areas.

  • Which nozzle best suits your needs?

    Your intended application is one of the most important criteria for choosing a spray nozzle. Find the nozzle best suited to your applications below. 

    BETE flat spray nozzle for fire protection systems

    BETE flat spray nozzle for fire protection systems

    Flat spray nozzles

    Flat spray nozzles, whether for spraying or atomizing, are suitable for the following applications: 

    Full-cone spray nozzles

    Full-cone spray nozzles are suitable for the following applications:

    Hollow-cone spray nozzles

    Hollow-cone spray nozzles are suitable for the following applications:

    When it comes to choosing a spray nozzle, you might find it useful to know that some manufacturers offer applications that advise you on the most suitable model, taking into account parameters such as volume, wind speed (for outdoor applications), and sprayer travel speed.

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